The Russian Federation

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Air population is a very serious problem. In Cairo just breathing the air is life threatening- equivalent to smoking two packs of cigarettes a day. The same holds true for Mexico City and 600 cities of the former Soviet Union.Industrial enterprises emit tons of harmful substunces. These emissions have disastrous consequences for our planet. They are the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains.An even greater environmental threat are nuclear power stations. We all know how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are.

People are beginning to realise that environmenta problems are not somebody else's. They join and support various international organosation and green parties. If governments wake up to what is happening- perhaps we'll be able to avoid the disaster that threatens the natural world and all of us with it.

Проблемы Окружающей среды

Отравление всемирной земли, воздуха, и воды - наиболее-быстро-распространяющаяся болезнь цивилизации. Это вероятно производит меньшее количество заголовков чем войны, землетрясения и наводнения, но это - потенциально одна из самых больших опасностей истории для человеческой жизни на земле. Если существующие тенденции продолжаются в течение следующих нескольких десятилетий, наша планета станет непригодной для жилья.

Перенаселенность, загрязнение и потребление энергии создали такие широкие планетой проблемы как массивное сведение леса, истощение озона, кислотные дожди и глобальное нагревание, которое верит, чтобы быть coused парниковым эффектом.Моря находятся в опасности. Они заполнены ядом: индустриальная и ядерная трата(отходы), химический fertilisers и пестициды. Средиземноморье уже почти мертво; Северное море следует. Аральское море находится на крае исчезновения. Если ничто не сделано об этом, однажды ничто не будет мочь жить в морях.Каждые десять минут один вид enimal, завода(растения) или насекомого заглохнут навсегда. Если ничто не сделано об этом, один миллион разновидностей, которая является действующей(живой), сегодня станет в потухших двадцати годах с этого времени.

Воздушное население - очень серьезная проблема. В Каире, только вдыхающем воздух - угроза жизни - эквивалент курению двух пакетов сигарет в день. Тот же самый проводит(держит) истинным для Мехико и 600 городов прежнего Советского Союза.Индустриальные предприятия испускают тонны вредного substunces. Эта эмиссия имеет бедственные последствия для нашей планеты. Они - главная причина для парникового эффекта и кислотных дождей.Даже большая угроза окружающей среды - атомные электростанции. Все мы знаем насколько трагический последствия Chernobyl бедствия.Люди начинают понимать, что environmenta проблемы - не чей-либо. Они присоединяются и поддерживают различный международный organosation и зеленые стороны(партии). Если правительства осознают то, что случается - возможно мы будем мочь избегать бедствия, которое угрожает естественному миру и всем из нас с этим.

RUSSIN TRADITIOS.

Almost every nation and country has a reputation of some kind. The Englishmen are reputed to be cold, reserved, rather naughty easy-going and fond of sport. They are the nation of stay-at-homes. "There is no place like home", they say. The English man's home is his castle is a saying known all over the world. They prefer a small house built for one family, with a small garden are a fire in the centre of the house. They like animals very much and follow the traditions concerning food and meals. We know much about English traditions and customs but now I'd like to say a few words about the traditions of my native land-Russia. First, about Russian people. To my mind, the main traits of their characters which differ them from other people are hospitality, their "open heart", "golden hands", wise Russian fairytales reflect this wisdom. Our people are hardworking, patient, never loosing hope for better life. The Russians are the talented nation. Russia gave the world beautiful names of Pushkin and Lermontov, Chaikovsky and Repin, thousands of names of world famous poets, writers, composers, scientists. All of them are the pride of the nation because they sand the beauty of our nature and people.

Besides these great names in literature and music, our country is famous for Russian traditional specific crafts its skilled craftsmen. Painted boxes of Palekh, coloured shawls of Pavlov Posad, clay toys of Dymkovo, laces of Vologda are known all over the world.

The names of Gzhel and Khokhloma are considered to be the symbols of Russia as well as matryoshkas and samovars. The history of khokhloma goes back into the 17th century Producing of tableware-dishes, spoons, mugs was begun at that time in the villages of Suomino and Khokhloma in the Nizhniy Novgorod Province. On the banks of the great Russian river Volga. Many carpenters, painters have been working since then reviving traditions of old masters. The Khokhloma style is characterized by using plant elements in painting the tableware. The prevailing colours are black, yellow, golden, green and red. And nowadays this craft is sure to be saved, it will be developed and brought into the future by the new generation of painters.

The reviving of old crafts is connected with the reviving of the traditional arts of all peoples inhabiting our big country. There are 100 of them. They revive their culture, costumes, dances and language. It is the revival of our souls. Now we celebrate the forgotten holidays - Troisa, Maslenitsa, Easter. We again sing Russian folk songs and chastushki, dance Barinya and perform khorovods, ride in troikas. Traditional Russian cooking is world-famous for such dishes as okroshka, shi, pelment, kurnik, kvass. We begin to build and reconstruct churches. The example of it is the building of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow. It is the symbol of reviving human feelings, national pride and patriotism.

TRADITIONS & CUSTOMS OF GREAT BRITIAN.

Every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions.In Britian traditions play more importaint part in the life of the people than in some other countries. Englishmen are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. It has been the law for about three hundred years that all the theatres are closed on Sundays no letters are delivered only a few Sunday papers are publshed. To this day English families prefer cotage houses with gardens to flats in a modern house with central heeting.English people like gardens.Sometimes the garden in front of the house is a little square covered with cement

painted green (in imitation of grass) and a box of flowers. In English houses the fire-place has always been the centre of interest in a room.For many months of the year people like to sit round the fire and

watch the dancing flames.Fire places are decorated with woodworks,there is a painting or a mirror over it.Above the fire there is usually a shelf with a clock and some photographs. Holydays are especially rich in old traditions and are different in cotland,Wales and England.Christmas is a great english national holyday and in Scotland it is not kept at all exeept by clerks in banks,all the shops and factories are working.But 6 days later on the New Year's Eve the

Scots begin to enjoy themselves.People invite their friends to their houses and sit the old year out and the new year in.In England on new Year's Eve a

lot of people go to Trafalgar Square,at midnight,they all cross their arms join hands and sing.People have parties too,they drink toarts to the New

Year Children are happy to have presents.

Four times a year the offices and banks in Britain are closed on Monday. These public holidays are known as Bank Holidays.The British like to spend

holidays out of the town in the open air.They go to the sea-side or to amusements parks. Londoners often visit the Zoo,outside London they take their families to Hamsted Heath ['hнmstid'hi@] a large natural park too.There is usually a big fair with many different amusements for children merry-go-round,swings puppet shows,bright baloons.

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