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C ex op, a eoe c, o e oe e e po, o ocoo e ocpoe eae oa c o o opa. Hecoeo, ep oepe oa a eoe eo oo, o oac, e e paoopo, oce. oe opae - oa cax, a o , ax cocax ace copeeoo oeca.

epeaa opa, cao coo, ocecec p oo opaox, e oaox aao - pecca, pao, eeee. K p ao ceo oe oocoao oo oec e po oep ce epe. Bce ece e "oce opa" coo o oe, a cce cpec accoo opa, coppoac e ooace, a caac (o poecc pooaec o cx op, p oa-o ocaoc) oa. Bo a c poco oo.

He a poc opoc peoe ooo oaooo aaa po. Koop x e? Booo ceoe ooo aao? Coe ooe pocecoa oeo oao aa e cox copae? He ec co peee epe pecc, pao eeee?

Moeco peooe, oope e e eee coc, a e caa, peoe.

pee e ooao ( eooao - a e oc) pa pope, o paopac, a opao coac copeea ccea cpec acc-ea. Be o , oop oa pa ceac, o pea ooeooo oeca, eo opeoce oooce, eo p coao opaa. Meco, oopoe a cpeca accoo opa oece, po, oea , eccopo e opeee ceece ocoeoc.

Koa oa ccea cpec acc-ea? Moo ca, o o opo ooe 20-x oo aeo xoeo ea, o ec cpa oce o, oa papoee oaoe aa coc ooaa cce.

o opa e accox ae, a eco, cecoaa o oe pao eee (e oee o ooe epea), a eo e 19-o coe. Ec oec o pao pa e accoo pecco aea peecx eo, o oo ca ooee accoo opa c oee eao ae, a oee, poco e e acco pecc a aeceo o a pa pac.

Oao aea oa eaco o ea pooaa cecoa ooe pe poco e oce oo, a exa ea caa cooac pacpocpae . oo ec ce ocoa ca epo aeo o co ooce, oop poaac XVI ee Bee a e oe "gazzetta", oa, coceo, o ca ep "aea".

Oeo, oeco cea pacoaao e cpeca pacpocpae opa (a e e oo?). c e opeoac ea, pee e pooe eeapaeoe pacpocpaee opa pepaoc, a o , oo ax cocoo pae oeco. Caa opa caa accoo, a oae aa - e e.

oo ao opee, oa ea, pao, eeee epe pope co ceece aeca, oope x oa ceo, oe e opa a epeco.

ea

ea, a e c, ec ca "pe" oa aao a aee. B pa opeoc e pace ceac cceoae e ecoo ao.

ep, oa ec o cox oeco opoe peaae pae epxe. Ha o ae cecoa poce ae. K pep, Pocc aa aea aaac "Kpa", cape ep oopo oocc 1621-o o. Coca e ococoo paa ceao ap, p e e pccoao ecoo px op.

Bopo a aac o pe, oa p e, epecxc co, pacpc a c oaeoc opca. O aeec ooee e eao ae. B o e Pocc eaa aea oa 1702-o o o a epa I, oopo eoxoo o poaapoa co peop, aoea oeceoe ee pe a co copo opco.

cceoae pac . . Ec cpaeo cae ooee ae c oco ao pa oeca, a eo, "oa caac aoae ocapca, oa pooee c oca opeeoo po pa, oa oppc ocoe oecee acc oap oe caaae c e apoa oaoo pa".

pepaee pecc cpeco accoo opa oe cceoae co ca c ao-exec oce oac ex ea pacpocpae (oee eo a, pcoeee eao ca apooo ae ..). Tae o "oao" opacae po pox paa, e cpee coao poco oeceo oeceoo e a cpeca coao-oecoo pae (apep, oe ocee peee ax-o opoco).

oo accoa aea c caoo aaa coeo oe ep oepe caa e oa aao, oop oo aa ope oeco op pae, ocec pooeo o aaa: paoeae eeee. (epe o cce co ocoo; o, a o , ae aac ooae a paee).

Pao

opeoc oaoo aae, cocoo cpo a oe pacco epeaa opa, cecoaa cea, o o epe pa oeca eo coe popeaa c oee aee. e ocp, ooe o, cae oap - o oo e peoc c e coo opa a oo cpee a oo ae.

opeee eepaa 1844 o aepae Ce Mope o ep cep ao a oeo accoo oa. Bop e eee cece ao oc opeee 1876 o Aecapo eo eeoa.

Oao o epea cooe o eepa eeo, e a poo, o c a paao a epoax o oeco x c ea - . Mace, . ep, . Mapo pe. Ho 25 ape (7 a o oo c) 1895 oa Aecap oo a acea Pccoo o-xecoo oeca oo o opee poooa - poopaa paopa.

poea epea oeo oepao opa a pacco a papeea. paec o oa Bopo poo o pao o ae e eo cee pax.

oce o, oao, oce cpa aao Epo pao ea coc c o opeo - eeee. Maccooe eee a aae "oa pee", aaoc, aca a paop. eceo, paop oop "pacoo a" epecec a x, aoo, a eepo. Oao aee eo o pee ee e oo c epeoc ocapoa a "paopeeccaca".

Teeee

Teeee - pao o. O pao oo aceoao opaa, aco oco, p popapoa, o o - eo opece oco coa eeepea. oee oo, eeee c pooee pao ae execo ooe.

B 1907-o o poeccop eeppcoo exooecoo ca . . Po aaeoa ep pe epoo-eo eeo p, a epe epe oa coa cao, c oo oopo epea opaee a paccoe. Bce 20-e aao 30-x oo a apea paoa o coepecoa aeca opae. Haoe, oa oe ocoe pea, cpaax ceo pa aa pac a p oce o eeep - CA (1933), epa (1935), pa (1936), A (1936), CCCP, Moce epae (1938). Oao, ecop a ac accooc "eee", a cee, pep, o eee peea Pea o ca op Bcepo ca H-ope 1940 o ceo ceo ecoo eco eoe.

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