Human rights situation and protection. Uno activity

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The Law "On the Right Inheritance of Ukraine", September 12, 1991 confirmed in article 6 the obligations of our state concerning international agreements, signed by Ukrainian SSR. The adduced international acts and the domestic legislation convincingly prove Ukraine's will to participate actively in UNO work directed to the protection of human rights.

On the territory of Ukraine this obligation enables each person to lean for the protection of its rights and freedoms on international standards produced by UNO, and in case of refusal of government bodies to protect these rights and freedoms to address in UNO. Unfortunately such necessity exists, as on apt expression of the chairman of a the standing Commission on Human Rights, Protection of Minorities and Refugees of Supreme Council of Ukraine Mr. Vladimir Butkevich today in our state there is a crisis of the legal system.

In this case it is necessary to consider a gear of UNO activity in the field of rights of the person and to define opportunities for protection of each person.

First of all it should be said, that UNO has defined a sense and has made a list of human rights which should be observed by all countries of the world and Ukraine in particular.

Our country, since it has become a member of UNO, actively participates in the output of main documents, which concern human rights. Ukraine ratified and has admitted compulsory 14 of 22 major international agreements on human rights, developed by UNO. At the Second World Conference on Human Rights in Viden in 1993 delegates from almost all the countries of the world have admitted, that the main international standards of human rights are today generated and the main task of UNO is to increase the efficiency of the gear of international protection of rights of the person.

Not concretizing the sense of international standards concerning human rights, which are well investigated by Ukrainian and Russian scientists (these standards are in published texts of The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, December 10, 1948, International Pact on Economic, Political and Cultural Rights, December 16, 1966 and in some other documents), it would be necessary to note, that even the announcement of the state of emergency can not call restrictions or abuse of the great number of human rights.

According to article 4 of The International Pact on Civil and Political Rights in a case of state of the emergency when there is the heaviest threat to the human rights and freedoms there can not be abused: the right to life; prohibition of deprivation of freedom for impossibility to execute contract obligations; prohibition of providing with the force of return the criminal law; the right to recognition of the legal capacity of each person; ideological freedom, freedom of conscience and religion.

THE INTERNATIONAL GEAR OF PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

Today the international gear of protection of human rights acts in frameworks of UNO.

The General Assembly of UNO according to article 13 of The UNO Constitution carries out researches and gives recommendations concerning fulfillment and respect of human rights. In order to support this UNO accepts appropriate resolutions on particular questions of protection of human rights. Though the resolutions have recommendatory character, member countries, as a rule execute these recommendations. The General Assembly also accepts and opens for ratification by countries - members conventions, which fix international standards of human rights. Economic and Social Council helps General Assembly in this activity. According to article 68 of The UNO Constitution two functional commissions were created - the Human Rights Committee with smaller Subcomission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities and the Commission on Women Status. In the already mentioned Subcomission there is a representative of Ukraine professor Vladimir Butkevich.

The Human Rights Committee is chosen by the Economic and Social Council from 43 representatives of UNO member countries for 3 years. The representatives of Ukraine many times were chosen members of the Human Rights Committee considering their active work in the development of international agreements and other documents in the field of rights of the person.

The Human Rights Committee is going annually on sessions and discusses most important questions of international protection of human rights. Besides development of projects of conventions for General Assembly of UNO, it investigates the cases of malicious and mass abuse of human rights.

Only in modern conditions of development UNO and its bodies have an opportunity to depart from the ideological collisions on questions of human rights and to begin to consider aspects of interstate relations as cooperation for achievement of such great values - rights and freedoms of the person.

Now such conventional bodies act: Committee on Liquidation of Race Discrimination, created according to the International Convention on Liquidation of All Forms of Race Discrimination, December 21, 1965 (since April 7, 1969 Ukraine participates in this Convention); the Human Rights Committee, created according to International Pact on Civil and Political rights, December 16, 1966, (Ukraine participates in this Pact since November 19, 1973); Committee on Liquidation of Discrimination of Women, created according to the Convention on Liquidation of All forms of Discrimination of Women, December 18, 1979 (since September 3, 1981 Ukraine participates in this Convention), Committee Against Tortures, created according to the Convention Against Tortures and Other Severe or Humiliating Honor Kinds of Behaviour and Punishment, December 10, 1984 (since June 26, 1987 Ukraine participates in this Convention), Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, created according to the International Pact on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, December 16, 1966 (Ukraine is a member of this Pact since November 19, 1973), Committee on Chidren's Rights, created according to the Convention on Children's Rights, October 20, 1989 (Ukraine is a member of this Convention since September 27, 1989).

The named committees consist of 18 members, which should be citizens of country - members of appropriate conventions and which are people of high moral and which are competent in the field of human rights. The members of the committees are chosen by secret voting by country - members of the appropriate convention for a period of 4 years. Such procedure of creation of committees gives them an opportunity to solve difficult, complex tasks of protection of human rights in the states, which have signed appropriate international documents.

It is clear that an important element of activity of these international bodies concerning the realization of agreements are obligations of the member countries to participate in their activity and to adhere their decisions. That is a feature of the whole process of protection of human rights with the help of international conventional bodies. If in the national legislation there is a law, which is realized due to the activity of courts or state bodies, the international bodies lean exclusively to cooperation of the countries, which take the obligations.

When the country refuses to participate in the convention on protection of these or other rights of the person, it does not take international measures concerning realization of these rights.

The competence of the named committees is largely stopped. It is nessesary to consider the Human Rights Committee work.

According to the Pact the Committee receives and considers reports of member countries on the taken measures for realization of the rights proclaimed in this international document. After consideration of the reports the Committee approves recommendations to the member countries concerning realization of civil and political rights.The Committee can make remarks of general character, which explain the statements of the Pact and help member countries to realize human rights.The Committee also considers complaints of member countries of abuse of these statements by other member country. In this case the Committee grants its service for permission of this argument, and in case of disagreement of the countries nominates a special commission. May be the most important authority of the Committee is its right to assort arguments of persons and international non-state organizations about abuse of human rights by the member country. The Committee receives such right only with the specific agreement of the member countries. The Optional Protocol to the International Pact on Civil and Political Rights of December 16, 1966 was adopted, according to which the member countries of the Pact take an obligation to admit the competence of the Committee to consider arguments of countries. The members of the Pact are 93 countries, and The Optional Protocol was ratified only by 53 countries. Ukraine ratified this document on November 25, 1991. So each person in Ukraine can address the Committee with complaints on abuse of civil and political rights provided in the Pact.

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