Human rights situation and protection. Uno activity

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Ukraine ratified 45 important international conventions, has participated in preparation and acceptance of more than 60 resolutions, declarations, pacts, conventions, agreements and other documents, which impose particular international obligations on member countries. Besides the above mentioned international documents, Ukraine ratified the International Convention on Liquidation of All Forms of Race Discrimination, the International Convention on Termination of Apartheid Crimes and Punishment for Them, Convention Against Apartheid in Sport, Convention on Liquidation of All Forms of Discrimination of Women. It testifies a certain level of development of legal culture, that will allow the state to enter the world community.


The adoption at the end of 1989 by the Supreme Council of Ukrainian SSR of the Law "On Elections of National Deputies", in which the elections on the alternate basis stipulated, was the first step on a way to creation of democracy in Ukraine. Despite obvious defects of that Law, as granting of a unique opportunity to the Communist party to interfere in the process of elections.

The republic received a new Parlament, which has on August 24, 1991 adopted the Act declarating independence of Ukraine. The Supreme Council of Ukraine has ratified the laws "On public and local referendums", "On elections of president of Ukraine", "On public associations". The preconditions for participation of the person in state and public life, for influence on activity of different state bodies and public associations of political direction; participation in the formation of representative bodies of state power and local authorities; creation and participation in the activity of public associations.

In 1991 there was conducted a referendum, which gave an opportunity to citizens to express their attitude to independence of Ukraine. The elections of president of Ukraine, which were conducted on December 1, 1991 on the alternate basis, were free and democratic. People chose Leonid Kravtchuk. But already in the mid-1992, as the consequence of an economic policy discontent began to grow (there was made an attempt to collect 3 million of signatures with the requirement advance to re-elect Supreme Council and the president of Ukraine).

An important step on the way to construction of a democratic state was an acceptance on March 6, 1992 the Law "On cancellation of criminal punishment in a kind of the exile and banish".

At the end of 1993 the Supreme Council accepted the Law "On entrance - departure", which is certainly a step of our legislation ahead. Unfortunately, this project does not contain precisely developed political gears of realization of the right of citizens to departure and entrance to Ukraine. Some thesis of the project are directed on legal fastening of the existing situation.

February 4, 1994 the Law "On the legal status of foreigners" was adopted, it defines the legal status, fixes the main rights, freedoms and responsibility of foreign citizens, as well as those of persons without citizenship, which live or temporarily stay in Ukraine, and defines the order of consideration of questions, connected with departure or entrance to country.


Ukraine among the first 20 states, ratified the International Pact on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (three years before the input of the Pact in to action).

But most of the already declarated by Ukraine social and economic rights are not provided. Our country now can't provide citizens with certain life standard.

In 1990-1993 the Supreme Council accepted some laws, which should become the guarantor of social protection of the population: the laws "On the Status and Social Protection of Citizens Damaged as a Consequence of Chernobyl Accident", "On Employment of the Population", "On the Bases of Social Protection of Invalids", "On the State Help to Families with Children" etc. But in practice these laws were not realized.

A characteristic feature of the modern social and economic situation in Ukraine is constant decrease of the level of life of the majority of the population, which is under pressure of inflationary processes and recession of manufacture.

Today mass misery of the population is the factor, which considerably influences the formation of consciousness of people, of their attitude to updating of society. The success and the prospects of reforms in Ukraine depend on whether the existing political parties and movements will manage to ensure social support of reforms. The experience of the last years testifies that conditions for occurrence and constant reproduction of subjects of a market economy are extremely slowly created, and they are deformed by the crisis phenomena in our economy.

The second president of Ukraine - Leonid Kuchma tried to stabilize economic situation, but it seems that he failed. Now Ukrainian economy is a market economy due to reforms of the last three years. It seems to be a great success but it is not a great success because now it's clear that nobody can stop the catastrophic recession of manufacture.

The growth of indiffirence of social layers testifies to formation rather specific relations between authorities and population - relations of parallel existing and non-interference.

Among economic rights of the person the central place takes the right to property. Unfortunately and so far legislation has no norms of equal and reliable protection of the property of all subjects of economic activity. Diffirent norms concerning the property are contradicting each other.


Today in Ukraine a distribution of separate periodic editions is forbidden. It is done by local representative authorities, infringing the legislation.

Despite the existence of the laws about the information, press and TV, the access of journalists to the primary sources still remains problematic, and sometimes - impossible, if it touchs interests of the officials.

There are a lot of examples such as the accident with the famous TV program. Broadcast of one of its releases was prohibited by the Supreme Council despite the legislation because of a scene in Parliament. And there are a lot of journalists which insult officials and famous persons. This situation witnesses the low level of culture of our journalists and deputies.

Freedom of voice in Ukraine has not reached an appropriate level yet. Real freedom of word is possible only with the conformity of the whole current legislation with international norms and creation of state gears of regulation.


The creation of the united legal space in Europe imposes on Ukraine new, difficult obligations to edit the norms of the legislation, coordination of rules of judicial practice with the existing universal and regional agreements. Development of normative base and gears of its realization in the international right considerably advances appropriate Ukrainian parameters of all directions. Therefore it is necessary to update the legislation up to a modern european level. All european international legal system is generated as a system of protection of human rights. Meanwhile the legislation of Ukraine is a system of protection of interests of the state.

Ukrainian Constitution should guarantee, instead of declare the right to life, freedom of voice and free realization of it, to ideological, religious and cultural freedom, freedom to participate in political life and management, right to strike, right to property indemnification of moral losses, caused by illegal actions of state bodies, officials, right to leave the country and to come back to it and so on. The named rights are new for Ukraine and are usual for world practice.

The problem of human rights in Ukraine is difficult, multiplan.

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